Il re pastore, K. 208
00:00 - 1. Overture

Act I.
02:54 - 2. Introduzione: Intendo amico rio [Aminta]
05:26 - 3. Recitativo: Bella Elisa? idol mio? [Aminta, Elisa]
07:43 - 4. No. 2 Aria: Alla selva, al prato, al fonte [Elisa]
13:29 - 5. Recitativo: Ecco il pastor [Agenore, Alessandro, Aminta]
15:18 - 6. Recitativo accompagnato: Ditelo voi pastori [Aminta]
17:44 - 7. No. 3 Aria: Aer tranquillo e di sereni [Aminta]
24:16 - 8. Recitativo: Or che dici Alessandro? [Agenore, Alessandro]
25:32 - 9. No. 4 Aria: Si spande al sole in faccia [Alessandro]
30:17 - 10. Recitativo: Agenore? T'arresta [Tamiri, Agenore]
31:54 - 11. No. 5 Aria: Per me rispondete [Agenore]
35:20 - 12. Recitativo: No, voi non siete, o Dei [Tamiri]
36:03 - 13. No. 6 Aria: Di tante sue procelle [Tamiri]
40:38 - 14. Recitativo: Oh lieto giorno! [Elisa, Aminta, Agenore]
42:50 - 15. Recitativo: Elisa! Aminta! È sogno? [Aminta, Elisa]
43:29 - 16. Recitativo accompagnato: Che? m'affretti a lasciarti [Aminta, Elisa]
47:06 - 17. No. 7 Duetto: Vanne, vanne a regnar ben mio [Elisa, Aminta]

Act II.
53:28 - 18. Recitativo: Questa del campo greco è la tenda maggior [Elisa, Agenore]
55:03 - 19. No. 8 Aria: Barbaro! oh Dio mi vedi [Elisa]
1:01:08 - 20. Recitativo: Nel gran cor d'Alessandro [Agenore, Aminta, Alessandro]
1:05:34 - 21. No. 9 Aria: Se vincendo vi rendo felici [Alessandro]
1:12:00 - 22. Recitativo: Oimè! declina il sol [Aminta, Agenore]
1:13:27 - 23. No. 10 Rondo: L'amerò, sarò costante [Aminta]
1:21:30 - 24. Recitativo: Uscite, alfine uscite [Agenore, Elisa, Tamiri]
1:23:41 - 25. No. 11 Aria: Se tu di me fai dono [Tamiri]
1:29:13 - 26. Recitativo: Misero cor! [Agenore]
1:29:38 - 27. No. 12 Aria: Sol può dir come si trova [Agenore]
1:32:45 - 28. No. 13 Aria: Voi che fausti ognor donate [Alessandro]
1:37:12 - 29. Recitativo: Olà! che più si tarda? [Alessandro, Tamiri, Agenore, Elisa, Aminta]
1:40:54 - 30. No. 14 Coro: Viva, viva l'invitto duce [Elisa, Tamiri, Aminta, Agenore, Alessandro]

Roles

Aminta, a shepherd, rightful heir to Sidon    
Elisa,
Phoenician shepherdess
Tamiri, daughter of the deposed tyrant, Stratone   
Agenore,
Sidonian aristocrat 
Alessandro, King of Macedonia

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart


Il re pastore (The Shepherd King) is an opera, K. 208, written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to an Italian libretto by Metastasio, edited by Giambattista Varesco. It is an opera seria. The opera was first performed on 23 April 1775 in Salzburg, at the Palace of the Archbishop Count Hieronymus von Colloredo.


In 1775 the opera was commissioned for a visit by the Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria, the youngest son of Empress Maria Theresa, to Salzburg. Mozart spent six weeks working on the opera. It consists of two acts and runs for approximately 107 minutes.


Metastasio wrote the libretto in 1751, basing it on a work by Torquato Tasso called Aminta. The libretto was picked up when Mozart (just 19 at the time) and his father saw a performance of it set to music composed by Felice Giardini – Mozart's version, however was two acts rather than Giardini's three, and has a few substantial changes. Each act lasts for around an hour in performance. The Salzburg court chaplain Varesco was largely responsible for this editing of Metastasio's libretto.


It is often referred to not as an opera, but as a serenata, a type of dramatic cantata. The appearance of a quartet of lovers (Aminta and Elisa, Agenore and Tamiri) of somewhat dubious fidelity automatically puts a modern audience in mind of Così fan tutte. The principal psychological theme of the opera is, however, the demands of love against the demands of kingship, as Aminta, the shepherd-king, tussles with his conscience, and in this Il re pastore is closer in theme to Idomeneo than any other of Mozart's operas. Indeed, Idomeneo was the next completed opera that Mozart wrote after Il re pastore, after his six-year-long break from the stage. Furthermore, the theme of qualities for kingship appears in another opera, La clemenza di Tito, his last one.
 

Synopsis

The king of Macedonia, Alessandro, has overthrown Stratone, the tyrant of Sidon, but aims to find the rightful king.
 

Act 1

In a meadow. The city of Sidon can be seen from a distance.

 

Elisa is with her lover Aminta, the shepherd. She assures him that the war between King Alessandro and Stratone, the tyrant of Sidon, will not affect their love for each other. Having deposed Stratone, Alessandro searches for the rightful heir to Sidon. He thinks that Aminta is the rightful heir. He comes to Aminta in disguise and offers him to take him to Alessandro. Aminta wants to remain a shepherd. Meantime, Agenore encounters his beloved Tamiri, daughter of Stratone. Tamiri is comforted to learn that Agenore still loves her.
 

Elisa gets permission from her father to marry Aminta. Aminta tells Elisa that he is the rightful heir to the throne and that his father was driven out by Stratone when he was a baby. Aminta promises to return to Elisa after claiming his throne. Aminta loves Elisa but Alessandro suggests that when Aminta is hailed king, royal duties take precedence over love. Alessandro suggests that Tamiri marry Aminta in order to ascend her father's throne. Aminta disagrees.
 

Act 2

Macedonian Camp.

 

Elisa is prevented by Agenore from seeing Aminta. He also discourages Aminta from pursuing her. Alessandro tells Aminta to dress like a king so he can be presented to his subjects. He also decides that Tamiri marry Aminta. Aminta is distraught. Agenore is upset. He breaks the news to Elisa. Tamiri does not want to marry Aminta. Agenore, too, is tormented by the planned marriage. Tamiri tells Alessandro that she and Agenore are in love. The women throw themselves onto Alessandro's mercy. Elisa begs him to give her back Aminta who declares his love for Elisa ("L'amerò, sarò costante" / I shall love her, I shall be constant). Realizing the potential injustice he was about to inflict, Alessandro tells Aminta to marry Elisa and Tamiri to marry Agenore. Aminta is crowned king of Sidon.

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and he created one of the largest empires of the ancient world by the age of thirty, stretching from Greece to northwestern India. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders.
 

During his youth, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until age 16. After Philip's assassination in 336 BC, he succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's pan-Hellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia. In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire (Persian Empire) and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Anatolia, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety. At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River.
 

He endeavored to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea" and invaded India in 326 BC, winning an important victory over the Pauravas at the Battle of the Hydaspes. He eventually turned back at the demand of his homesick troops. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, the city that he planned to establish as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in the establishment of several states ruled by the Diadochi, Alexander's surviving generals and heirs.
 

Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion and syncretism which his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt. Alexander's settlement of Greek colonists and the resulting spread of Greek culture in the east resulted in a new Hellenistic civilization, aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th century AD and the presence of Greek speakers in central and far eastern Anatolia until the 1920s. Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and mythic traditions of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, and military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics. He is often ranked among the most influential people in history.

Alexander Mosaic (c. first century AD), ancient Roman floor mosaic from the House of the Faun in Pompeii showing Alexander fighting king Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Issus

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