Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
La clemenza di Tito (English: The Clemency of Titus), K. 621, is an opera seria in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to an Italian libretto by Caterino Mazzolà, after Metastasio. It was started after the bulk of Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute), the last opera that Mozart worked on, was already written. The work premiered on 6 September 1791 at the Estates Theatre in Prague.
KV 621 - La clemenza di Tito
- Sinfonia (0:00)
- Duetto I,1 (Sesto, Vitellia) Come ti piace imponi (4:47)
- Aria I,2 (Vitellia) Deh, se piacer mi vuoi (7:24)
- Duettino I,3 (Annio, Sesto) Deh, prendi un dolce amplesso (12:25)
- Marcia I,4 (13:12)
- Coro I,4. Serbate, oh Dei custodi (15:01)
- Aria I,4 (Tito) Del più sublime soglio (16:48)
- Duetto I,5 (Annio, Servilia) Ah perdona al primo affetto (19:38)
- Aria I,6 (Tito) Ah, se fosse intorno al trono (22:12)
- Aria I,8 (Sesto) Parto, ma tu ben mio (24:10)
- Terzetto I,9 (Vitellia, Annio, Publio) Vengo....aspettate...Sesto! (30:00)
- Finale I (Tutti) Deh, conversate, oh Dei (32:17)
- Aria II,1 (Annio) Tornia di Tito a lato (38:52)
- Terzetto II,4 (Sesto, Vitellia, Publio) Se al volto mai ti senti (41:04)
- Coro II,5 (Coro, Tito) Ah, grazie si rendano (45:39)
- Aria II,5 (Publio) Tardi s'avverde d'un tradimento (48:52)
- Aria II,7 (Annio) Tu fosti tradito (50:18)
- Terzetto II,9 (Sesto, Tito, Publio) Quello di Tito e il volto! (53:18)
- Rondo II,9 (Sesto) Deh , per questo istante solo (56:40)
- Aria II,11 (Tito) Se all'impero, amici dei (1:03:08)
- Aria II,12 (Servilia) S'altro che lacrime per lui non tenti (1:07:54)
- Rondo II,13 (Vitellia) Non più di fiori vaghe catene (1:10:09)
- Coro II,14. Che del ciel, che degli Dei (1:16:40)
- Finale II (Tutti) Tu e ver, m'assolvi, Augusto (1:18:40)
Tito Vespasian, Roman Emperor
Vitellia, daughter of the deposed Emperor Vitellio
Sesto, a young patrician, friend of Tito, in love with Vitellia
Annio, a young patrician, friend of Sesto, in love with Servilia
Servilia, sister of Sesto, in love with Annio
Publio, Praetorian prefect, commander of the Praetorian Guard
Place and time: Rome, in the year 79.
Vitellia, daughter of the late emperor Vitellio (who had been deposed by Tito's father), wants revenge against Tito. She stirs up Tito's vacillating friend Sesto, who is in love with her, to act against him (duet Come ti piace, imponi). But when she hears word that Tito has sent Berenice of Cilicia, of whom she was jealous, back to Jerusalem, Vitellia tells Sesto to delay carrying out her wishes, hoping Tito will choose her (Vitellia) as his empress (aria Deh, se piacer mi vuoi).
Tito, however, decides to choose Sesto's sister Servilia to be his empress, and orders Annio (Sesto's friend) to bear the message to Servilia (aria Del più sublime soglio). Since Annio and Servilia, unbeknownst to Tito, are in love, this news is very unwelcome to both (duet Ah, perdona al primo affetto). Servilia decides to tell Tito the truth but also says that if Tito still insists on marrying her, she will obey. Tito thanks the gods for Servilia's truthfulness, and immediately forswears the idea of coming between her and Annio (aria Ah, se fosse intorno al trono).
In the meantime, however, Vitellia has heard the news about Tito's interest in Servilia and is again boiling with jealousy. She urges Sesto to assassinate Tito. He agrees, singing one of the opera's most famous arias (Parto, parto, ma tu, ben mio with basset clarinet obbligato). Almost as soon as he leaves, Annio and the guard Publio arrive to escort Vitellia to Tito, who has now chosen her as his empress. She is torn with feelings of guilt and worry over what she has sent Sesto to do.
Sesto, meanwhile, is at the Capitol wrestling with his conscience (recitativo Oh Dei, che smania è questa), as he and his accomplices go about to burn it down. The other characters (except Tito) enter severally and react with horror to the burning Capitol. Sesto reenters and announces that he saw Tito slain, but Vitellia stops him from incriminating himself as the assassin. The others lament Tito in a slow, mournful conclusion to act 1.
W.A.Mozart - La Clemenza di Tito
The act begins with Annio telling Sesto that Emperor Tito is in fact alive and has just been seen; in the smoke and chaos, Sesto mistook another for Tito. Sesto wants to leave Rome, but Annio persuades him not to (aria Torna di Tito a lato). Soon Publio arrives to arrest Sesto, bearing the news that it was one of Sesto's co-conspirators who dressed himself in Tito's robes and was stabbed, though not mortally, by Sesto. The Senate tries Sesto as Tito waits impatiently, sure that his friend will be exonerated; Publio expresses his doubts (aria Tardi s'avvede d'un tradimento) and leaves for the Senate. Annio begs Tito to show clemency towards his friend (aria Tu fosti tradito). Publio returns and announces that Sesto has been found guilty and an anguished Tito must sign Sesto's death sentence.
He decides to send for Sesto first, attempting to obtain further details about the plot. Sesto takes all the guilt on himself and says he deserves death (rondo Deh, per questo istante solo), so Tito tells him he shall have it and sends him away. But after an extended internal struggle, Tito tears up the execution warrant for Sesto. He determines that, if the world wishes to accuse him (Tito) of anything, it should charge him with showing too much mercy, rather than with having a vengeful heart (aria Se all'impero).
Vitellia at this time is torn by guilt, but Servilia warns her that tears alone will not save Sesto (aria S'altro che lagrime). Vitellia finally decides to confess all to Tito, giving up her hopes of empire (rondo Non più di fiori with basset horn obbligato). In the amphitheatre, the condemned (including Sesto) are waiting to be thrown to the wild beasts. Tito is about to show mercy, when Vitellia offers her confession as the instigator of Sesto's plot. Though shocked, the emperor includes her in the general clemency he offers (recitativo accompagnato Ma che giorno è mai questo?). The opera concludes with all the subjects praising the extreme generosity of Tito; he himself asks that the gods cut short his days, should he ever cease to care for the good of Rome.
Titus (30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, Titus succeeded his father Vespasian upon his death, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to come to the throne after his own biological father.
Prior to becoming emperor, Titus gained renown as a military commander, serving under his father in Judea during the First Jewish–Roman War. The campaign came to a brief halt with the death of emperor Nero in 68, launching Vespasian's bid for the imperial power during the Year of the Four Emperors. When Vespasian was declared Emperor on 1 July 69, Titus was left in charge of ending the Jewish rebellion. In 70, he besieged and captured Jerusalem, and destroyed the city and the Second Temple. For this achievement Titus was awarded a triumph: the Arch of Titus commemorates his victory to this day.
During his father's rule, Titus gained notoriety in Rome serving as prefect of the Praetorian Guard, and for carrying on a controversial relationship with the Jewish queen Berenice. Despite concerns over his character, Titus ruled to great acclaim following the death of Vespasian in 79, and was considered a good emperor by Suetonius and other contemporary historians.
As emperor, he is best known for completing the Colosseum and for his generosity in relieving the suffering caused by two disasters, the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79 and a fire in Rome in 80. After barely two years in office, Titus died of a fever on 13 September 81. He was deified by the Roman Senate and succeeded by his younger brother Domitian.
Vitellius (24 September 15 – 22 December 69 AD) was Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December AD 69. Vitellius was proclaimed emperor following the quick succession of the previous emperors Galba and Otho, in a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors.
Vitellius was the first to add the honorific cognomen Germanicus to his name instead of Caesar upon his accession; the latter name had fallen into disrepute in many quarters because of the actions of Nero.
His claim to the throne was soon challenged by legions stationed in the eastern provinces, who proclaimed their commander Vespasian emperor instead. War ensued, leading to a crushing defeat for Vitellius at the Second Battle of Bedriacum in northern Italy. Once he realised his support was wavering, Vitellius prepared to abdicate in favor of Vespasian but was executed in Rome by Vespasian's soldiers on 22 December 69.
1784 - Mozart - Lo sposo deluso
1786 - Mozart - Der Schauspieldirektor
1786 - Mozart - The Marriage of Figaro
1787 - Mozart - Don Juan
1790 - Mozart - Thus Do They All, or The School for Lovers
1791 - Mozart - The Magic Flute
1791 - La clemenza di Tito