Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart



Lucio Silla

 


Lucio Silla (pronounced /ˈluːtʃoʊ ˈsɪlɒ/, Italian pronunciation: [ˈluːtʃo ˈsilla]), K. 135, is an Italian opera in three acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The libretto was written by Giovanni de Gamerra, revised by Pietro Metastasio.

It was first performed on 26 December 1772 at the Teatro Regio Ducal in Milan and was regarded as "a moderate success".
 

Handel's opera Silla (1713) covered the same subject. Other operas with the same title were also composed by Pasquale Anfossi (1774), and Johann Christian Bach (1776).

KV 135 - Lucio Silla

- Sinfonia (Molto allegro - Andante - Molto allegro) (0:00)
- Aria I,1 (Cinna) Vieni ov'amor t'invita (7:02)
- Accompagnato I,2 (Cecilio) Dunque sperar poss'io (14:24)
- Aria I,2 (Cecilio) Il tenero momento (16:40)
- Aria I,3 (Celia) Se lusinghiera speme (24:24)
- Aria I,5 (Giunia) Dalla sponda tenebrosa (29:51)
- Aria I,6 (Silla) Il desio di vendetta (36:26)
- Accompagnato I,7 (Cecilio) Morte, morte fatal (41:27)
- Coro e arioso I,8 (Giunia) Fuor di queste urne dolenti (46:10)
- Duetto I,9 (Giunia, Cecilio) D'elisio in sen m'attendi (52:37)
- Aria II,1 (Aufidio) Guerier, che d'un acciaro (59:04)
- Aria II,3 (Cecilio) Quest' improvviso tremito (1:04:34)
- Aria II,4 (Celia) Se il labbro timido (1:07:29)
- Aria II,5 (Giunia) Ah se il crudel periglio (1:11:30)
- Accompagnato II,6 (Cinna) Ah si, scuotasi omai (1:19:24)
- Aria II,6 (Cinna) Nel fortunato istante (1:20:06)
- Aria II,8 (Silla) D'ogni pietà mi spoglio (1:24:38)
- Aria II,9 (Cecilio) Ah se a morir mi chiama (1:26:58)
- Aria II,10 (Celia) Quando sugl'arsi campi (1:33:44)
- Accompagnato II,11 (Giunia) In un istante oh come (1:40:18)
- Aria II,11 (Giunia) Parto, m'affretto (1:43:19)
- Coro II,12 (Tutti)  Se gloria il crin ti cinse (1:47:43)
- Terzetto II,14 (Silla, Cecilio, Giunia) Quell' orgoglioso sdegno (1:49:57)
- Aria III,1 (Celia) Strider sento la procella (1:53:53)
- Aria III,2 (Cinna) De' più superbi il core (1:57:47)
- Aria III,4 (Cecilio) Pupille amate (2:04:12)
- Accompagnato III,5 (Giunia) Sposo...mia vita... (2:08:45)
- Aria III,5 (Giunia) Fra i pensier più funesti di morte (2:11:58)
- Finale III,8 (Tutti) Il gran Silla a Roma in seno (2:14:58)
- Ornamented version from 1778 of Aria II,9 (Cecilio) Ah se a morir mi chiama (2:18:06)

Roles

Lucio Silla (Lucius Cornelius Sulla), dictator of Rome
Celia, sister of Lucio Silla
Giunia (Junia), betrothed to Cecilio
Cecilio (Cecilius), Roman senator in exile  
Lucio (Lucius) Cinna, friend of Cecilio 
Aufidio (Aufidius), tribune and friend of Lucio Silla
Guards, nobles, senators, people (chorus)

Bastien und Bastienne

Bastien und Bastienne (Bastien and Bastienne), K. 50 (revised in 1964 to K. 46b) is a one-act singspiel, a comic opera, by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
 

Bastien und Bastienne was one of Mozart's earliest operas, written in 1768 when he was only twelve years old. It was allegedly commissioned by Viennese physician and 'magnetist' Dr. Franz Mesmer (who himself would later be parodied in Così fan tutte) as a satire of the 'pastoral' genre then prevalent, and specifically as a parody of the opera Le devin du village by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The German libretto is by Friedrich Wilhelm Weiskern, Johann Heinrich Friedrich Müller (de) and Johann Andreas Schachtner, based on Les Amours de Bastien et Bastienne by Justine Favart and Harny de Guerville. After its supposed premiere in Mesmer's garden theater (that is only corroborated by an unverified account of Nissen), it was not revived again until 1890. It is not clear whether this piece was performed in Mozart's lifetime. The first known performance was on 2 October 1890 at Architektenhaus in Berlin.
 

The opera is written in both French and German manners. Many of the melodies are French in manner, but Bastienne's first aria is true German lied. This melody is also used in Mozart's Trio in G for Piano, Violin and Violoncello, K. 564 (1788). Another purely German lied is Bastienne's aria "I feel certain of his heart". Mozart utilizes the orchestra sparingly, with the exception of the reconciliation scene.

Synopsis

The story concerns the Roman dictator Lucio Silla (Lucius Sulla) who lusts after Giunia, the daughter of his enemy Gaius Marius. Giunia, on the other hand, loves the exiled senator Cecilio.
 

ACT I

Scene 1: A secluded spot on the banks of the Tiber'.
The exiled Senator Cecilio meets his friend Cinna who tells him his betrothed Giunia mourns his death, a lie by the dictator Silla so that he can win her for himself. Cinna advises Cecilio to meet Giunia by the tomb of her father (murdered hero Gaius Marius). Cecilio is filled with joy at the idea and Cinna shares his joy and predicts the freedom of Rome (aria: "Vieni ov' amor t' inita").

Scene 2: Cecilio excited at the prospect of meeting his betrothed sings of his love (aria: "Il tenero momento").
Scene 3: Giunia's apartments. Silla seeks the advice of his sister Celia on his approach with Giunia and she advises subtlety and kindness (aria: "Se lusinghiera speme").
Scene 4: On Silla's approach, Giunia declares her love for Cecilio and her hate for Silla, her father's enemy (aria: "Dalla sponda tenebrosa").
Scene 5: Alone, Silla, insulted, decides to behave as a tyrant (aria: "Il desìo di vendetta, e di morte").
Scene 6: Cecilio waits by the tomb for Giunia.
Scene 7: Giunia arrives (chorus and ariosa: "Fuor di queste urne dolente").
 

ACT II

Scene 1: An archway decorated with military trophies

Scene 2: Silla is joined by Celia to whom he tells of his plans to wed Scene 3: Giunia and for Celia to wed her beloved Cinna on this day.

Scene 3: Cinna restrains Cecilio who has his sword drawn trying to follow Silla, believing he has been instructed by the spirit of Gaius Marius to seek revenge. Cinna tells him to consider Giunia and his rage is controlled (aria: "Quest' improvviso trèmito").

Scene 4: Giunia consults with Cinna who suggests she accept Silla's proposal and then murder him in their wedding bed. Giunia refuses, stating that vengeance is for Heaven alone to consider. She asks Cinna to make sure that Cecilio stays hidden from danger (aria: "Ah se il crudel periglio").

Scene 5: Cinna resolves to kill Silla himself (aria: "Nel fortunato istante").

Scene 6: Hanging gardens: Silla's love for Giunia starts to bring out his compassion.

Scene 7: Giunia's hateful face angers him again and he threatens her with death but not to die alone (aria: "D' ogni pieta mi spoglio").

Scene 8: With Cecilio, Giunia worries about Silla's words and they part.

Scene 9: Celia asks Giunia to accept Silla's proposal for the sake of happiness saying she is also to be married to Cinna (aria: "Quando sugl' arsi campi").

Scene 10: Giunia ponders her wretchedness.

Scene 11:  the Capitol

Silla asks the Senate and the people of Rome to reward him as a hero of Rome with the marriage to Giunia.

Scene 12: When Cecilio appears, there is confrontation (trio: "Quell' orgoglioso sdegno").


ACT III

Scene 1: Entrance to the dungeons.
Cecilio has been imprisoned. Cinna and Celia has gained access and Cinna asks Celia to convince Cecilio to repent and forget his love. Cinna promises to marry Celia if she is successful, for which she is hopeful (aria: "Strider sento la procella").

Scene 2: Whilst Cecilio accepts his fate Cinna tells him not to worry, Silla's heart over his head will bring about his own downfall (aria: "De' più superbi il core").

Scene 3: Silla has allowed Giunia one last visit to Cecilio and they say their farewells (aria: "Pupille amate").

Scene 4: Giunia alone with her thoughts of Cecilio's impending death thinks of her own (aria: "Frà I pensier più funesti di morte").

Scene 5: The audience chamber. Before the Senators and the people of Rome, to everybody's surprise, Silla declares that he wishes Cecilio to live and marry Giunia. When questioned on his silence, Cinna declares his hatred of Silla and his intention of killing him. Silla issues his "punishment" to Cinna that he should marry his beloved Celia. He further declares that he will step down as dictator and restore liberty to Rome. He explains that he has seen proof that innocence and a virtuous heart is triumphant over power and glory. The people of Rome celebrate liberty and the greatness of Silla.

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (/ˈsʌlə/; c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla was a skillful general, achieving numerous successes in wars against different opponents, both foreign and Roman. He was awarded a grass crown, the most prestigious Roman military honor, during the Social War. Sulla's dictatorship came during a high point in the struggle between optimates and populares, the former seeking to maintain the Senate's oligarchy, and the latter espousing populism. In a dispute over the eastern army command (initially awarded to Sulla by the Senate but withdrawn as a result of Gaius Marius's intrigues) Sulla marched on Rome in an unprecedented act and defeated Marius in battle. In 81 BC, after his second march on Rome, he revived the office of dictator, which had been inactive since the Second Punic War over a century before, and used his powers to enact a series of reforms to the Roman Constitution, meant to restore the primacy of the Senate and limit the power of the tribunes. Sulla's ascension was also marked by political purges in proscriptions. After seeking election to and holding a second consulship, he retired to private life and died shortly after. Sulla's decision to seize power – ironically enabled by his rival's military reforms that bound the army's loyalty with the general rather than to Rome – permanently destabilized the Roman power structure. Later leaders like Julius Caesar would follow his precedent in attaining political power through force.

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